T A O M U S I C   O R D E R I N G   I N F O R M A T I O N
     
 

Agusan del Sur Artists, KAHIMUNAN: Cultural Music of the Manobo, Higaonon,
and Banwaon. Tao Music, 2002

Kahimunan, also known as Kaamulan, is a yearly celebration among the Manobo, Higaonon and Banwaon people of Agusan del Sur, northeastern Mindanao, southern Philippines. It fulfills both secular and religious purposes: thus, from healing ceremonies to planning conferences to social gatherings. Music is inseparable from a Kahimunan or Kaamulan. Musical instruments are played and there is much dancing and singing, as well as games for the young. (Bae Florencia Havana)

DATU KATIPUNAN BENITO LINDAHAY
Binahanan, Bunawan, Agusan del Sur

"Sukad pagkatawo, nakatuon ako sa pag-tod-om ug sa kinaiya sa Manobo sa akong ginikanan. Kung muhilak ang mga manghod, tod-oman man sa among amahan unya matulog na man sila. Maghigda ko ug maminaw sa iyang tingog hangtod sa nakatuon. Karon, nagpadayon gihapon sa pag-awit, pagtukar, kung may panagtigom sa mga Manobo sama sa Kahimunan nga magbuntag ang pagtawag sa gimbae. Ang akong mga anak, makahibalo sa sayuday, gimbae, agung. Gusto ko nga mahibalo sila niini arun mapadayon ang maong kinaiya, dili mapalung, para dili mabugto ang kultura sa pagka-Manobo."

Since birth I have learned the traditional Manobo ways and the singing of the tod-om from my parents. Each time my younger siblings would cry, my father would sing the tod-om, lulling them to sleep. I would lie down and listen to his voice until I had learned the tod-om myself. Up to now, I continue to sing the tod-om and to play traditional musical instruments during Manobo gatherings such as the Kahimunan, to which people are summoned by the beating of the drum throughout the night. My own children know how to play the zither, the drum and the gong. I want them to practice these customs, so that these will not vanish, and the Manobo culture will survive, unbroken.

"Mao kini ang akong natun-an sa akong pagkatawo sa kalibutan, busa inyong pamatian. Gusto ko nga madungog ninyo ang among mga awit ug tolonggon para mahibaw-an ninyo ang kalihukan sa mga Manobo, madunggan ninyo ang among mga kalipay ug kasakit. Ug usab aron ang akong abilidad makaadto sa ubang tawo kay nakakutlo usab ako sa kinaiya sa mga dagatnon-banjo, tenor, bajo, sista, violin. Kining akong nahibaw-an inyo untang tun-an kay kini mahinungdanon sa karaan nga kinaiyahan, ug makalipay sa tawo nga magul-an."

This is what I learned in my earthly life, so please listen. I want you all to hear our songs and music so that you will know what goes on among the Manobo people, our joys and sufferings. I would also want my talents heard by others in the same way that I, too, have learned some of the settlers' ways, such as playing the banjo, the tenor, the bass, guitar, violin. May you learn something from me because what I know is important to traditional culture, and a source of joy for anyone who feels sadness.

Datu Lindahay, originally from Loreto, Agusan del Sur, now resides in Binahanan, Bunawan, where he farms to support himself and his family. A descendant of a baylan or native priest/healer, he possesses knowledge not only of Manobo music and dance but also of basket-making, traditional trapping, hunting, and fishing techniques, and many other skills. He is a member of the Economic Development Research Technology Foundation Inc.


DATU LAGNASAN ALEJANDRO CAMPOS
Salvacion, Trento, Agusan del Sur

"Nakatuon ako sa awit ug tolonggon nga Minanobo sa akong amahan. Gisundog lang nako ang iyang gihimo. Natural, kay Manobo man. Padayon ako gihapon pagbuhat niini kung mingawon o kung dunay programa sa mga lumad sama sa Kahimunan nga pagpalig-on sa among tradisyon. Ang akong mga anak, dili na sila interesado, gawas sa awit sa Manobo. Gusto ko nga madunggan usab kini sa mga dili Manobo aron mahibaluan sa tanan nga ang mga Manobo adunay kaugalingon nga mga dulunggon ug awit. Ug kung ilang hikat-uanan, dili na gyud mawala, ug kini ma-well-recognized. Dili kini mapugngan. Maayo nga matun-an sa eskwelahan aron mahibaluan sa intero katawhan nga adunay kaugalingon ang mga lumad ug dili na sila maulaw nga ipakita nga sila Manobo kay sila mag-no.1."

I learned Manobo songs and music from my father. All I had to do was follow what he did; a natural thing for a Manobo. I continue to practice these whenever I feel nostalgic or when there are cultural gatherings, such as the Kahimunan, which strengthen our tradition. My children are no longer interested in these traditions, except for Manobo songs. Hence, I would like these to be heard even by non-Manobos so everyone will become aware that the Manobo people have their own songs and music. If both Manobos and non-Manobos learn about these matters, these will not vanish and will even gain recognition. This process cannot be stopped. It is best for these to be taught and learned in schools so all will know that Manobos have their own identity and that they should not be ashamed of themselves for in this matter they will excel and are No. 1.

"Ang akong pangandoy alang sa among mga batan-ong Manobo, nga ila untang ibalik ang ilang pagsabot sa among kultura aron magpabilin kini hangtod sa hangtod (awit, tukar, sinina, respeto sa tigulang-kaila ug dili)."

My wish for the Manobo youth is that they will regain their understanding of our culture so that it will remain alive forever.

"Ang akong i-mensahe sa akong mga paisano nga Manobo, atong ipadayon ang atong kultura nga atong napanonod gikan sa atong mga ginikanan."

My message to my fellow Manobos is for us to continue to practice the culture that we have inherited from our ancestors.

"Alang sa nagdumala sa atong nasud, nga tabangan unta kami, nga mahibalik unta kanamo ang among yuta nga giilog sa mga adunahan. Gi-kontrolar kami sa mga dakong kumpaniya; dili kuno amo ang among yutang kabilin ug imbis tamnan sa among kabuhian, giilog nila kay gipanamnan ug kahoy nga himoong papel."

To our country's leaders, may you help us reclaim our lands that have been taken from us by the rich. We are being controlled by big companies; they say that our ancestral domains are not ours so we are unable to plant them with crops that can keep us alive. Instead, our lands have been planted with trees that are turned into paper.

Datu Lagnasan is a tribal chief in Salvacion, Trento, Agusan del Sur. He also serves as Board Member of Northeastern Mindanao Manobo-Agusanon-Dibabawon Tribal Association or NEMADITAS; as council-member and CARAGA representative to the Mindanao Rural Congress; and as member of the Philippine Peasant Institute. Farming is his primary means of livelihood.


DATU TUNGHA TEDDY BESAHON
Gibunon, Esperanza, Agusan del Sur

"Nakatuon ako pag-limbay sa akong magulang, sa pag-uban-uban kaniya. Gusto ko nga makatuon ang akong mga anak aron dili mawala ang among mga kaugalingon nga mga tolonggon ug mga awit."

I learned to sing the limbay from my elder brother, with whom I always tagged along. I also want my children to learn this so our music will not be forgotten.

"Bisan nag-bag-o na ang akong relihiyon, muatendar gihapon ako sa Kaamulan alang sa panaghiusa ug sa akong katungdanan."

Even if my religion has changed, I continue to attend the Kaamulan for the sake of unity and responsibility.

"Sa ubang Higaonon nga unta dili sila magpasagad kon dili mukugi usab sila alang sa ilang kaugmaon."

To other Higaonons, may they not be negligent but work hard for the future.

"Alang sa nagdumala sa nasud, tan-awon ug tabangan usab kami nila aron mu-uswag usab kami."

To the country's leaders, we wish that you would help us, so that we, too, may progress.

"Gusto ko nga madungog kini sa uban aron makapangutana sila sa ako kung unsa ko nga tawo ug kaliwat. Ako, usa ka Higaonon, nagpaila kaninyo pinaagi sa akong mga awit, nga unta tabangan ako ninyo."

I would like this to be heard by others so they will ask and come to know who I am and who my ancestors were.

Datu Tungha serves as Purok leader of Tagiwalay, Barangay Gibunon, Esperanza. His roles include settling disputes, making the voices of his constituents heard by leaders above him, explaining government projects to his people, and working for the construction of roads and school buildings in his area. He earns his living through farming, rattan gathering, and tricycle driving.


DATU PANGGA PEDRO LANDAGAN
Gibunon, Esperanza, Agusan del Sur

"Nadungog nako kining mga butanga sa akong ginikanan kay kanunay sila nag-awit. Nakatuon ako paagi sa pagpaminaw sa nag-awit. Hantud karon, padayon gihapon sa tanang panahon nga gusto."

I heard these things from my parents because they always sang. I learned by listening. Up to now, I sing whenever I feel like it.

"Gusto ko nga matudluan ang akong mga anak aron dili sila malupigan sa mga kabilin. Gusto ko usab nga madungog sa uban aron maila nila nga dunay Higaonon, aron dili mayatakan ang among katungod."

I would like to teach these to my children so that they will receive their due inheritance. I would also want these heard by others so that they will come to know that there is a Higaonon people, and so that our rights will be safeguarded and not trampled upon.

"Sa makadungog, nga maangayan nila ang kinaiyahan sa Higaonon nga matarong."

To those who hear, that they will come to appreciate the good ways of the Higaonon.

"Ang mga batan-ong Higaonon naay dili na musundog sa tradisyon. Ang uban musundog, ang kadaghanan mubag-o. Ang eskwela, dagatnong pamaagi. Ang maayo sa tradisyon mao ang sama sa dili pagbaligya sa yuta, maayahay nga puluy-anan kay linaw sa lasang, pag-uma kay tambok man nga yuta, mga awit. Ang pag-bag-o nga maayo mao ang edukasyon, ug ang dili pagbiya sa uma-ang dili pagbalhin kada tuig."

Most young Higaonons no longer follow tradition. The educational system reflects the settlers' ways. What is good with our tradition is the practice of not selling lands, peaceful living in the forests, farming because the land is fertile, music. Innovations that we consider beneficial include education, and the termination of nomadic ways.

Datu Pangga became a leader first and foremost because he comes from a long line of ininay or traditional judges. Later his people also proclaimed him as their leader. Now he serves as barangay datu of Gibunon, Esperanza, where he settles disputes, usually concerning land, marriage, and crime. Farming and rattan-gathering are his chief means of livelihood.



DATU YADUP SALVADOR PLACIDO
Tag-oyango, Sibagat, Agusan del Sur

"Nakatuon ako sa pagtod-om sa akong mga uyuan. Pagkatawo nako, nakapaniid na ko, natanum na sa akong huna-huna; namat-an. Pagkabaylan nako, sugo usab sa abyan nga mag-tod-om. Bag-o matabudan, tod-om nga duwa-duwa o naturales. Kung tabudan na, tininuod na ang tod-om kay naa nay panghinganlan nga mga diwata ug isugilon ang ilang mga kaagi."

I learned to sing the tod-om from my uncles. I have observed this since birth and it became ingrained in my mind. When I became a shaman, I was also urged by the spirit to sing the tod-om. Before a trance, I would do the kind of tod-om that I call "naturales" because I sing it while in a "normal" state of mind. Once I enter into a trance however, I switch into what I call the "real" kind of tod-om, one that tells of the names and stories of my spirit helpers.

"Hantud karon, padayon gihapon kung dunay mga lipay-lipay. Naa usab gitudluan aron unta dili mawala ang kinaiyahan pero unsaon kay mao na man ang namat-an ang dagatnon nga kinaiya. Ang napanid-an nako sa akong mga apo, murag nagbiya na gyud sila sa among kinaiyahan kay naghari na gyud ang kinaiya sa mga dagsa. Dili na manulti sa sinultihan namo. Ang akong pangandoy unta sa mga batan-ong Manobo nga dili sila mubiya sa among kinaiya pero unsaon man kay mangiskwela man, mao nga makakutlo sa dinagatnon nga kinaiya. Ang pag-eskwela, dinagatnon."

Up to now, I continue to sing the tod-om on happy occasions. I am also teaching it to someone, so that our identity will not be lost. But how can I succeed in doing this when our people are now born to settlers' ways? What I have observed among my grandchildren is that they seem to be moving away from our traditions because those of the settlers' have become so dominant. They no longer speak our dialect. My wish is that our young will not turn away from tradition but how can this be when they go to school where they learn about other peoples' ways? Going to school is the way of the settler.

"Pag-abot sa mga dumagat, gisuportahan pa namo sa pagkaon. Pagkadugay na, nakaugat na sila kay kugihan manguma ug maayo na ang ilang pamuyo, kung kami makadangup kanila, papaliton na hinuon kami. Diha na kami maka-tan-aw nga kung makakita ug makakaon sila ug daku-daku, timbangon na ug ibaligya. Sa akong kagikan, bisan dili paryente namo ang muabot, bisan dili pa oras, hatsa-hatsa kami sa pag-lung-ag. Unya, ug manguli na, panagaan. Mao kini ang akong namat-an. Kung kinsa ang makakuha sa baboy nga dako, tanan panghatagan; way kinilo."

When the settlers came, we supported them with our food. Later on, when their livelihood progressed and they became rooted in the land because they are hardworking farmers, there would be times when we would run to them for assistance. But instead of assisting us freely and voluntarily, they would instead make us buy what they had. This was when we noticed that each time they caught something big, they would weigh it in kilos and then sell to us. Among my people, this was not the case. When someone came to our home, even if he or she was not a relative, even when it was not time to eat, we would rush to prepare food to offer to our visitor. And when it was time for that person to leave, we would also give something. This was the custom that I was born to. Whoever caught a big boar, everyone partook of it, nothing was ever sold in kilos.

"Ang akong mensahe sa makadungog, salamat kay interesado kamo, aron makapasabot ako nga kung mahimo, magkahiusa ang atong mga huna-huna, kamo ug kami, way pinihig, way gidaug-daug, way bintahaan, mag-minaayo kita. Ang tinguha ta unta, kung mahimo pa nato, maghiusa kita, magtinabangay."

My message to those who hear: thank you for being interested in this opportunity for me to tell you that if possible, let us be united in our minds, you and we. Let there be no one oppressed; let there be no one taken advantage of. Let us treat each other well. May our goal be, if only we can do it, to be united, to help one another.

"Magkalain-lain ang huna-huna sa tawo. Ang huna-huna sa usa, dili maalang-alang sa pagbalhin; dili nato madala ang huna-huna sa tanang tawo. Pero basta lang nga magminaayuhay kita ninyo; bisan unsang pagka-ubos namo, ayaw mig yataki; ayaw mig daug-dauga."

Different people think differently. One's thinking cannot be changed just like that. We cannot impose on everyone's mind. So we should just be good to one another. No matter how poor and downtrodden we are, please don't trample on us, do not oppress us.

Datu Yadup is a baylan or a traditional priest and healer. Also a veteran arbitrator and settler of disputes, he was once conferred the title of peacemaker. Farming is his means of livelihood.


BAE ANGELA PLACIDO
Tag-oyango, Sibagat, Agusan del Sur

"Nakatuon ko sa akong iyaan. Gitudluan ko niya ug kudyong. Sundog-sundugon sab nako ang iyang tod-om ug uyaging. Ang nanay nako maka-tod-om gihapon kung apongan."

I learned from my aunt. She taught me how to play the lute. I also learned the tod-om and uyaging by mimicking her. My mother, too, sang the tod-om, but only when she was in a trance.

"Ang gitudluan nako ang akong mga apo, pero di na man makakat-on kay kanta sa dagatnon ug Binisaya na man ang makat-unan. Ang akong anak nga batan-on, makahibalo mag-Minanobo ug dinagatnon. Ang gusto nako nga kung kaatubang dagatnon, magdinagatnon; kung Manobo ang kaatubang, mag-Minanobo."

My grandchildren are the ones I am trying to teach, but they are no longer able to learn as it is the songs of the settlers, the Visayans, that they are interested in learning. My young son knows how to speak the Manobo dialect as well as the language of the settlers. What I wish is that when faced with a settler, one may speak the settlers' speech but when faced with a fellow Manobo, one must speak in Manobo.

"Ug gusto kamo makakat-on, salamat. Sundog-sunduga kay makakat-on man ka."

If you want to learn, thank you. Follow and you will learn.

"Kanang makadungog, makaila nga kanta kana sa Manobo. Ug dili makadungog, unsaon man pag-ila?"

Whoever hears these will become aware that these are songs of the Manobo people. Without hearing them, how can one come to that recognition?

Bae Angela is a farmer, mother, and wife to traditional priest/ healer Datu Yadup whom she assists. Her Mother was herself a baylan.



BAE FLORENCIA GOMEZ HAVANA
Panagangan, La Paz, Agusan del Sur

"My father, a datu, sang the tod-om and played the agung, gimbal, and takombo. My father's third wife on the other hand, sang the limbay, uyaging, idangdang."

"Now I continue to create Manobo songs and dances for school and barangay programs as well as for church worship. I also occasionally attend the Kahimunan to help strengthen our culture."

"I want Manobo songs to be heard by Manobos and non-Manobos alike to make them all used to hearing these. This will help to create a deeper understanding and appreciation of our culture, to minimize cultural discrimination. In the past for instance, intermarriage was discouraged because their non-Manobo partners always discriminated against Manobos. Each time a couple would fight, prejudices would surface. Sakitan g'yud ko makabati. (I would really feel so hurt.) I would always defend the Manobo party. To eradicate cultural discrimination, one must be proud of one's tribe. One must also get formal education and apply one's knowledge in daily life."

"As for the young, some do not wish to be identified as Manobos; but these are only a few. Most are honored and proud to be Manobos."

"I wish for young Manobos to be educated while continuing to identify themselves as one with our tribe."

"I hope that this project will soon be released for public use, that it will be taught in public schools, in seminars and workshops, camps and fellowships, and at important celebrations."

Bae Florencia is Assistant Church Minister to her husband Rev. Jose Havana at the Free Methodist Church of Panaganga, La Paz, Agusan del Sur. Holder of a Master's degree in Divinity, a Bachelor's degree in Theology, and a Bachelor of Science in Education, she once served as Principal of the La Paz National High School and is currently Adviser and School Registrar at the Mindanao Christian Academy. She also served as chief translator at the Summer Institute of Linguistics.



REV. JOSE HAVANA
Panaganga, La Paz, Agusan del Sur

"I continue to attend the Kahimunan, to help strengthen the culture. I must be there; the only way to maintain it."

"Both my parents were good singers and musicians."

"I hope that those who hear this will appreciate the beauty of Manobo culture. Once the young people see that the Manobo dialect is accepted by many, their inferiority complex will be diminished. There are Manobos who don't speak Manobo because they think Manobos are lagging behind in many things-skills, education, etc. Many are not able to participate in social activities because they think they have less training."

"There are two different attitudes among the Manobo youth that I observe. There are those who wish to separate themselves from the tribe. These are the Manobos who are not well educated, especially by their parents. They feel that being a Manobo is being inferior, thus, they must hide their identity. There are those, however, who appreciate themselves as Manobos. These are the ones who are formally trained. They are proud to be who they are because they have the material within them to mingle with other professionals-teachers, doctors, etc."

"My hope is that every young Manobo will plan for his/her education, and that professional Manobos will help to educate others on matters of livelihood."

"Manobos are also Filipinos and therefore should be included in development planning. Allow them to participate in all programs because it's as if they are being left out. Local leaders who are not Manobos often only choose from among their own people in making plans for Agusan."

"This project is the beginning of promoting the tribe to everyone. If we promote ourselves, people will know our situation."

"I hope this project achieves the following: (1) the participants deliver well; (2) our tradition becomes known; (3) young people get trained to develop their music and find new avenues for presenting it; (4) this activity becomes one way of preventing young people from taking drugs because for as long as young people are in a group and somebody leads them, they will not have any need to take drugs; and (5) the people who will hear this will be interested in supporting Manobos in their cultural and social development."

Rev. Jose Havana is Minister of the Free Methodist Church of Panaganga, La Paz, Agusan del Sur. He is a former Sangguniang Bayan member and as Provincial Development Officer for Cultural Communities. In his community he is a peacemaker and settler of disputes, a negotiator with armed groups, liaison officer to government and nongovernment agencies, guide to his people.


TAO MUSIC ORDERING INFORMATION

> back to main <

 

 

Copyright © 2008 GraceNono.com. All rights reserved.